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« Dr Emil Mondoa: Bringing Wellness to Millions, Beginning with the Cameroon Community | Main | Just Published: The Secrets of an Aborted Decolonisation by Carlson Anyangwe »

October 12, 2010


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Interesting! Incidentally, I just finished reading an article about the (im)possibility of extending the ICTR's mandate to try Kagame. It states that:

“If the United States wants something to happen, in terms of punishing these criminals, there’s a way to do it. If the U.S. doesn’t want it to happen, it won’t happen, tribunals or no. Because the United States controls the ICTR, because the United States controls the ICC, because the United States controls the Security Council. So extending the mandate of the ICTR has no effect unless the policy of the United States changes to allow the prosecution of the RPF and Kagame for the crimes that are already known that they’ve committed, and those crimes have been known for 15 years.”

Complete article here:



You mention "operation mygale" and then there are the horrible crimes against Bami and Bassa in 1958-1970 with hundreds of thousands wiped out. In that case, the Cold War and France provided cover. There is the "anglophone problem" which has some elements of another potential bloodbath.

Nkeze Asonglefac Felix

NESPROG II (2011-2021)

PREFACE. (Chairman)
1.1 What is the NESPROG?
1.2 Why CAMEROON needs a NESPROG?
1.3 The basic principles of the NESPROG
1.4 The key programmes of the NESPROG
1.5 Conclusion
2.1 Problem statement
2.2 Vision and objectives
2.3 Creating Jobs
2.4 Land reform
2.5 Housing
2.6 Water and sanitation
2.7 Energy and electrification
2.8 Telecommunications
2.9 Transport
2.10 Environment
2.11 Health care
2.12 Nutrition
2.13 Social security and social welfare
3.1 Problem statement
3.2 Vision and objectives
3.3 Education and training
3.4 Arts and culture
3.5 Sport
3.6 Youth development
4.1 Problem statement
4.2 Vision and objectives
4.3Economic Planning and Regional Balance
4.4 Amélioration de l’environnement des affaires
4.5 Assurer la sécurité juridique des investissements
4.6 Mastering Monetary Instruments
4.7 Reform of the financial sector
4.8 Involving Diaspora Communities
4.9 Promoting Efficient Economic governance
4 10 Boosting Investments
4 10 1 Strategic measures
4 10 2 Judicial Taxation System
4 11 Efficiency and Transparency in Budgetary Management
4 12 Upgrading Infrastructures
4 13 Modernizing of Agriculture, Livestock and Fishery
4 13 1 Agriculture and Livestock Policies
4 13 2 Fisheries
4 13 3 Forestry
4 14 Developing Industry
4 15 Trade
4 16 Tourism
4 17 Science and Technology
4 18 Mining and Minerals
4 19 Regional integration

4 20.1 Problem statement
4 20 2 Vision and objectives
5 1 Problem statement
5.2 Vision and objectives
5.3 Implementing and coordinating structures
5 4 Planning frameworks
5 5 Financing the NESPROG

PREFACE : (Chairman)

Published in 1996 at the time when the country swore only by IMF and World Bank Structural Adjustment Programmes, NESPROG was an integrated, coherent socio-economic policy framework. It sought to mobilise Cameroonian people and the country's resources towards the final eradication of poverty and the building of a democratic and developed society.
NESPROG was supposed to be updated, at least, every seven years, in order to be in step with changes in the global economy as well as the national policy timeframe which provides for presidential elections at the end of this period. Unfortunately, the lack of means and the blocking of the democratic process that gave priority to exclusively political considerations did not make it possible. The update, today, that comes more than ten years after, takes on a completely new form, a new draft, with regard to upheavals that the global economy has witnessed for sometime as well as the immense damage that the ill-adapted structural adjustment policies and chronic poor governance caused to the economic and social fabric of the country.
Within the framework of the NESPROG, the SDF will develop when time is right detailed positions and a genuine programme of government.
The NESPROG has been drawn up by the SDF in consultation with other key political parties and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Many university lecturers and researchers assisted in the process.
This process of consultation and joint policy formulation must continue. In that line key sectors of our society such as the business community and churches must be consulted and encouraged to participate as fully as they may choose.
Those organisations within civil society that participated in the development of the NESPROG will be encouraged by an SDF government to be active in and responsible for the effective implementation of the NESPROG.
1.2.1 Need to put an end to illusions
The catastrophic situation of the Cameroonian economy is certainly the result of failure in the management of its governing elite till date; however it took a turn for the worse over the last twenty years by way of a series of illusions.
The first illusion is to think that democracy has no place in the economic development of a country.
The second illusion is to believe that the path to development must necessarily come from abroad.
The third illusion consists in giving priority to palliative solutions to poverty whereas it shows simply an absence of development.

1.2.2 Democratic preconditions and institutional reforms
For a long time donors wallowed in the illusion that it was possible to turn-around the economy of a country without meddling in local politics in general. Particularly, they have for a long time been reluctant mounting pressure on governments to be more democratic. It was only from 1999 as we would see subsequently when they realized the havoc that poverty was wreaking that they came to terms with the slippages of poor governance whose main characteristic is the complete absence of democratic practices in the management of human and physical resources. In the case of Cameroon, for example, if from 1987, the year of the first programme with IMF and the World Bank, donor institutions had mounted pressure on Mr Biya to lead the country to the path of greater democracy, there would have been a reinforcement of the State of law and consequently less impunity and particularly less corruption, elements that rubbish most efforts at turning around the economy of the country.
When the situation of African countries under structural adjustment is examined on a case by case basis, we realize that the wealth of these countries in question depend in large measure on the quality of governance.
Thus, in countries where a particularly antidemocratic form of governance obtains like Cameroon, the Congo Democratic Republic or Chad, there is an explosion of numerous perversions like corruption, cronyism, nepotism and tribalism that hamper the building of viable States and the putting in place of solid and efficient political and economic institutions. Hence, a constant incapacity to formulate efficient strategies to put the economy on track.
On the other hand, where significant efforts are made to reinforce the State of law, to institutionalize democratic practices and to promote good governance, there is more rationality in approaches to issues of development and in actions aimed at promoting the general well-being. Countries like Botswana, Mauritius Island, South Africa, Morocco, Ghana, Benin, Mali or Senegal are examples.
It has been proven that contrary to certain outdated believes, democracy and good governance are more enabling to development than autocracy.

1.2.3 Need to go beyond structural adjustment programmes
In order to square up to the global economic crisis set in motion by the oil crises of 1973 and 1977 and which began to hit Cameroon from 1985, the government after hesitating for a long time embarked from 1987 on structural adjustment programmes with the IMF and the World Bank, that were presented as veritable magic recipes to resolve all the economic problems of the country. Immediately, the government dropped development planning that was so dear to President Ahidjo and reduced its economic policy to a frantic race to meet the requirements of international donor institutions.
From one failure to another, due partially to their inappropriateness to the context and, on the other hand, to the impossibility of government to respect commitments taken vis-à-vis donors, these programmes led to such a dilapidation of the economic and social fabric that poverty spread in an exponential manner.
As from 1999, the Bretton Woods institutions tried to adopt a new approach by adding to their programmes an important social component based on poverty alleviation. This was the birth in 1999 of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) in place of the Reinforced Structural Adjustment Facility (RSAF). The latter was replaced in 2000 with the highly indebted poor countries initiative (HIPC) aimed at totally or partially reducing the debt of poor countries that qualify for the initiative, including the commitment to use the reduction gains to alleviate poverty.
The admission of Cameroon to this programme led it to attain in 2006 the famous completion point that enabled it to obtain a significant reduction of the stock of its debt and a promise of financing amounting to more than CFAF 2000 billion over twenty to fifty years.
The great hopes raised by this success were quickly dashed because more than three years later, there is no improvement in the living conditions of Cameroonians. Worst of all, poverty is witnessing an upward trend in the country to a point where half of the population find themselves below the poverty line.
The SDF economic programme is thus an alternative to both the management failure of the Biya regime and the inappropriateness of structural adjustment policies imposed till date on our country by international donor institutions.
1.2.4 Poverty alleviation
Cameroon history during the last twenty seven years has been a bitter period of dictatorship, corruption and failed economic policies. The result is the generalisation of poverty and the degradation of the living conditions of Cameroonians.
With the failure of Biya government policies came the structural adjustment plans as shown above followed by the HIPC initiative with aims of alleviating poverty which has become a major concern of the international community. Furthermore, it is one of the millennium objectives adopted by the United Nations during its General Assembly of September 2000 in New York that aims at reducing poverty by half in the world by 2015. (1)

(1) The millennium objectives for 2015 are as follows: (1) Reducing extreme poverty by half, (2) Ensure primary education for all, (3) Promote equality of the sexes and women empowerment, (4) Reduce by two thirds the mortality of children of less than 5 years, (5) Reduce by three-quarters maternal mortality, (6) Fight against the propagation of diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS, (7) Ensure a sustainable environment, (8) Install a world partnership for development including aid, trade and debt reduction objectives.

Unfortunately, it is clear that the strategies used till date to combat poverty and meet the millennium objectives are far from providing the results expected. For example, according to the UN Human Development Reports, school enrolment in Cameroon was 55% of school age children in 2005 but dropped to 52.3% by 2007. This can be blamed on the exclusively social approach that guides the action of Mr Biya’s government within the framework of the HIPC initiative of the IMF and the World Bank.
With the NESPROG SDF proposes a radical change of approach with the conviction that poverty is nothing other than the manifestation of a lack of development. The SDF is convinced that to alleviate poverty in a sustainable manner, it is necessary to turn around the national economy in order for it to be on the path of a sustainable and lasting growth.

NESPROG is essentially centred on:
1.3.1 A people driven process
Cameroonian people, with their aspirations and collective determination for change, is the most important resource for NESPROG. It is focused on people's most immediate needs, and it relies, in turn, on their energies to drive the process of meeting these needs. Development is not about the delivery of goods to a passive citizenry. It is about active involvement and growing empowerment.
1.3.2 The building of a state of law
Since its birth in 1990 the SDF has been at the vanguard for the institution in Cameroon of a State of law. The foundation of a State of law entails the existence of a constitution, adopted mutually and accepted by all and which takes precedence over the entire institutional structure. That is why it is called the fundamental law.
The State of law is also characterized by the existence and separation of three traditional powers i.e the executive, legislative and the judiciary as well as an independent judiciary that renders justice dispassionately.
In a State of law, the functioning of institutions provided for by the constitution draws from the source of moral and philosophical principles shared generally by the majority of the population and feeds on a sound and dynamic democratic practice that provides for the free selection of leaders, a constant renewal of executives and constant sanction of their management.
Finally, with the globalization of exchanges, it is now indispensable for a State of law to strive for integration in an always large environment in order to draw maximum profits from coordinated synergies and to be a major actor in international cooperation.
We have not reached this stage in Cameroon. And yet, only such a State can guarantee to Cameroonians the possibility to formulate in the long-term effective development strategies to alleviate poverty, boost the economy in a sustainable manner, promote its competitiveness in order to enable it win the globalization battle.
Consequently, the SDF commits to undertake all necessary reforms to reinforce the State of law including above all the organization of a constitutional conference in charge of amending the present constitution, rewriting of the electoral law and the putting in place of an independent electoral commission and the organization of free and transparent elections at all levels in order to endow the country with legitimate leaders capable of steering the country to the path of recovery.

1.3.3The need of federalism and the principle of subsidiarity
The SDF thinks that the most appropriate way to embark on a self-reliant economic development is the putting in place of a highly decentralized state structure. The most elaborated form of political decentralization lies in a state structure of a federal nature. Generally, most developed countries and even those that record a rapid economic development are highly decentralized states.

1.3.4 The defence of social democratic values
The SDF stands for social liberalism which, while promoting the law of the free market considers that the latter must be exercised under the authority of a regulatory State which ensures fairness of general rules and the pre-eminence of the spirit of national solidarity and social justice. The economic policy of the SDF must protect private property, encourage private initiative and free competition. The role of the State is

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